Grade 5 3-5, 3-7


Oklahoma Academic Standard 3. The student will examine the foundations of the American nation established during the Revolutionary Era.

Objectives:
5.3.5 Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the British and the American colonies at the eve and during the Revolutionary War, including political and military leadership, military strength, population, resources, foreign alliances, and motivations for fighting.

5.3.7 Identify the points of view of major groups that remained loyal to Britain, joined the patriot cause, or remained neutral. 

In a Nutshell

Students should consider the significant risk for the North American colonies to rebel against Great Britain. While each colony had its own militia, there was no united force until the formation of the Continental Army who faced the world’s largest empire and military at the time. Because of British advantages, colonists developed alternative ways to resist. Students should also be able to describe the different perspectives toward the revolution which were based on political ties, economic concerns, familial relationships, and personal risks. Through examination of opposing views and the motives behind such views, students will develop a deeper understanding regarding the divisive nature of American society prior to and during the war for independence.

Teacher Action 

Student Action 

  • Provide opportunities for students to describe the specific contributions of individuals and groups who have shaped significant historic events during the Revolutionary War.

  • Assist students in composing informative essays and written products by introducing and developing a topic, incorporating evidence and maintaining an organized structure in order to explain the significance of foreign alliances to American victory. 

  • Assist students in comparing perspectives of individuals and groups and the rationale for decisions to align with opposing sides or remain neutral.

  • Provide opportunities for students to create and explore essential questions that are important to others, as well as enduring across the social studies, such as “What motivates us to take action on our beliefs?” 

  • Create and use maps identifying major military turning points and strategies explaining spatial relationships.

  • Compare advantages and disadvantages of physical and human places impacting the military goals of the Revolutionary Army, explaining how environmental factors affected historical events. 

  •  Compare the experiences that form other’s points of view about civic issues facing colonial Americans during the era of colonial resistance.

  • Analyze the impact of human interactions by drawing conclusions from primary sources reflecting the multiple perspectives of colonists toward independence. 

Key Concepts 

Misconceptions 

  • militia, Continental Army, regulars, redcoats

  • military resources, officers' and troop's knowledge and experience, use of guerilla warfare. impact of morale, impact of environmental factors, geographic size of colonial America, British distance from homeland

  • Hessian mercenaries, French alliance 

  • patriots, rebels, dissatisfaction with economic and political limitations or unfair, unjust treatment, desire for self-rule, development of unique American identity 

  • tories, loyalists, familial ties with Britain, economic dependence on trade or business with Britain, loyalty to a monarch and tradition

  • American Indian perspective, protection and guarantees of territory, desire for exert authority over homelands

  • free and enslaved Africans, promise of release from slavery, full British citizenship  

  • Some students may find it difficult to comprehend an all-voluntary military during a time of war, in addition to comprehending the role of colonial militias the early nation's military forces. 

  • Many students have limited prior knowledge regarding the strength and power of the British navy and military, creating an overwhelming advantage. 

  • Some students might mistakenly conclude that all colonists were either for or against independence from Britain; whereas, many remained neutral or changed loyalties throughout the war. 

Instructional Resources

Access suggested instructional resources correlated to the learning standard and objective.