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Grade 5 3-6

Page history last edited by Pam Merrill 4 years, 1 month ago

Oklahoma Academic Standard 3. The student will examine the foundations of the American nation established during the Revolutionary Era.

Objective 5.3.6 Analyze the relationships of significant military and diplomatic events of the Revolutionary War, including the leadership of General George Washington, experiences of Valley Forge, impact of the battles of Bunker Hill, Trenton, Saratoga, Yorktown, and the Treaty of Paris in 1783.

In a Nutshell

This objective calls for students to examine the lasting impact of the most significant military encounters during the course of the colonists' struggle to win independence. Students should be able to describe George Washington's leadership through both victories and defeat. For example, having lost the Battle of Bunker Hill, Washington was still able to inflict significant casualties. Similarly, the difficulties experienced at Valley Forge proved the Continental Army might have collapsed from within without his leadership.

Teacher Action 

Student Action 

  • Assist students to compose narratives to develop and examine a topic in social studies, such as the significant military turning points of the American Revolutionary War, using information appropriately in a structured format.

  • Provide opportunities for students to explain the challenges people have faced and the strategies used to address national historical problems. 

  • Describe the specific contributions of individuals and groups who have shaped significant historical changes focusing on American leadership and major military victories.

  • Create and explore essential questions that are important to others, as well as enduring across the social studies, such as “What are the qualities of leadership?” 

Key Concepts 


  • characteristics of leadership, experience, strategic knowledge

  • Bunker Hill (1775), siege of Boston, British victory at heavy losses, proving American militia's strength against trained British regulars

  • Trenton (1777), crossing Delaware River, defeat of Hessians with few casualties boosted the Continental Army's morale

  • Valley Forge, winter encampment, retreat from Philadelphia, "sunshine patriot", Thomas Paine, hardship, sacrifice, morale 

  • Saratoga (1777), result of lengthy campaign, American victory, surrender of General John Burgoyne's army, General  Horatio Gates, General Benedict Arnold, French Alliance 

  • Yorktown (1781), campaign, surrender of General Cornwallis, last major battle, assistance by French troops and navy, Marquis de Lafayette, prisoners of war

  • Treaty of Paris (1783), establishment of international boundaries, acknowledgement of the United States as an independent and sovereign nation 

  • Many students lack prior experiences in analyzing short versus long-term impact of historic events, including why certain events are designated as "turning points" in the wider context of national and international history.

Instructional Resources

Access suggested instructional resources correlated to the learning standard and objective.


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