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Grade 7 4-3, 4-4

Page history last edited by Pam Merrill 3 years, 9 months ago

Oklahoma Academic Standard 4. The student will analyze the interactions of humans and their environment in the Eastern Hemisphere.  


7.4.3  Explain the differences among subsistence, cash crop and commercial agriculture, including the impact on economic development.

7.4.4  Evaluate the effects of human modification of and adaptation to the natural environment through transformation caused by agriculture, the use of modern irrigation methods, industry, demand for energy, and urbanization. 

In a Nutshell

Agriculture has sustained societies since humans began living together in communities. Students should connect the contribution of agriculture to the growth of economies, industrialization, and population. Students should compare different levels and methods of agriculture utilized in the Eastern Hemisphere in order to develop an understanding of issues such as food shortages. However, agriculture is merely one example of the broader concept of human-environment-interaction, which is the "core" of geographic studies. Students should be able to describe and provide multiple examples of human efforts to modify environments to provide higher qualities of living, economic opportunities, and sustained use of natural resources. 

Teacher Action 

Student Action 

  • Provide opportunities for students to discuss opposing viewpoints on the environmental impact of various agricultural and industrial activities, proposing answers to compelling and supporting questions regarding sustained use of the environment.

  • Assist students to use geographic data to evaluate how advances in agricultural production have impacted economic growth and standard of living.

  • Compare economic data from multiple charts and graphs  to identify the relationship between economic growth and industrial and/or agricultural production. 

  • Refine and formulate viable research questions related to the modification of environments, evaluating both positive and negative effects of human actions.

Key Concepts 


  • types of agricultural systems, including subsistence farming, nomadic herding, shifting cultivation, commercial (plantation), agricultural "belts"

  • Green Revolution 

  • three sectors of industrial activities, including extraction of raw materials, manufacturing of finished goods, services provided to consumers

  • local and global examples of human-environment interaction which support human development, such as dam building, irrigation, sewage projects, windmills, forestry, refinement of fossil fuels

  • local and global examples of human-environment interaction with the potential of damaging the environment,such as slash-and-burn methods of agriculture, deforestation (clear-cutting methods), navigation projects, pollution from industry, open-pit mining

  • impact of urbanization on availability of resources and public services; potential of pollution and overcrowding

  • Some students may assume that most examples of human-environment-interaction produce negative outcomes for the environment, neglecting to realize the positive impact that human actions can have on appropriate and planned use of the environment and its resources.

  • Some students may hold opinions that corporate farming has replaced individual or family farming to the detriment of society and economies.

  • Some students believe that farmers can not produce enough food to feed the world, neglecting to consider factors such as regional environmental factors, nutritional needs, and food distribution issues. 




Instructional Resources

Access suggested instructional resources correlated to the standard and objective.

Links to Regional Resources:

Europe and Russia

Southwest Asia and North Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa

South Asia

East Asia

Southeast Asia, Australia, and Oceania

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